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Universal Data Analytics as Semantic Spacetime(Part 3)

Part 3: The basics of space and time, and the most familiar multi-model databases you never knew…

In case you hadn’t noticed, there’s a very important multi-model database hidden in plain sight, right under our noses. We might never think about it in those terms, but we rely on it every day for everything we do. It’s the very space around us! We keep stuff on shelves, organize it in drawers, or leave it lying around. In IT, we created another shared space for our stuff, using another multi-model database — the good old hierarchical file system, consisting of all the directories and files on our disks. From there, we build other structures including key-lookup databases. At risk of pointing out the obvious, it’s worth a quick post to reflect on the similarities between these data sharing models, and see the practicalities surrounding multi-model database design — and the features we’ll use to describe semantic spacetime.

This post is elementary for more experienced programmers, but may be of interest to general readers.

Data with coordinates!

Databases are basically storage systems, warehouses, or parking lots, for data or even real goods, depending on how you look at it. Our world is less of an oyster than it is a database.

The contents of RAM or the surface of a disk are covered in blocks which are numbered sequentially with addresses, like parking spaces, and are used to park data for later retrieval. Dividing space into fixed size coordinate blocks helps to make it predictable, regular, and reusable. We build all kinds of abstractions on top of this basic model to arrange the parked information into virtual views, which looks like files, directories, hierarchies, ledgers, or graphs.

So, at a low level, memory of any kind is like a cargo ship, piled high with containers, all the same size, but containing different data. Without some kind of coordinates, map, or index of what’s in which container, finding anything in the pile would be a long and laborious process of systematic searching. Databases offer these maps in a wide variety, as well as query languages (of which SQL is the most famous). Let’s compare some of these views and how we approach them with our tools Go and in ArangoDB.

Containment structures and data values

ArangoDB’s approach to storage uses a hierarchy of container structures, with a few layers, to slice and dice data:

  • Database — a named data repository (like a disk volume).

  • Collection — a set of related records, under a common role name (like a directory or folder). Collections don’t normally represent different types of entity (as in SQL tables) but rather documents that play a similar role in a computation.